Perception and practices of action research by prospective teachers in teacher education institutions in Pakistan


Nadia Thalho
Yakubu Doris Gomos


Introduction: Action research plays a key role in teacher education; the simple aim of this research was to discover the perception of action research by prospective teachers, which was also part of the training programme. Prospective teachers self-analyze the problems of their students and provide a solution while working in their schools.

Purporse: The purpose of this study was to analyze the perception and practices of prospective teachers during the course of action research in teacher education institutions, B.Ed Hons Programme.

Methodology: This research was a cross-sectional survey. The researchers adopted the deductive method of research. Quantitative approach was used for data collection, and sampling techniques were purposive and convenience sampling techniques in collecting data from two districts (Hyderabad and  Karachi), one college was selected from each school.  The researchers  selected samples of 55 prospective teachers who passed B.ED Hons. Results: The findings revealed that there were little or no mean difference between the prospective students’ perceptions on planning and process, importance, likeness, and abilities, assessment and supervision, and time/placement of both teacher education institution of Hyderabad and Karachi towards quality action research. The finding also revealed that prospective teachers faced problems of supervising teachers because they had no skills and methods of teaching in those institutions.

Recommendations: It is recommended that teacher educators and research coordinators should play a key role in this field, working as mentors to develop interest, create a learning environment and make use technology to impact action research on prospective teachers


How to Cite
Thalho, N., & Gomos, Y. D. . (2020). Perception and practices of action research by prospective teachers in teacher education institutions in Pakistan. Journal of Educational Research in Developing Areas, 1(1), 57-67.


  1. Andrew, P. J. (2012). A short guide to action research. Pearson Education.
  2. Auriacombe, C. J. (2015). Closing the gap between theory and practice with action research.
  3. Bartlett, M. S. (1950). Tests of significance in factor analysis.
  4. Biratu, S. (2016), Action research practices, challenges and prospects: The case of bole preparatory school.
  5. Clarke, A. E. (2006). Teacher inquiry: What’s old is new again!
  6. Creswell, J. W. (2005). Educational research: Planning conducting and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (4 Ed.). Pearson.
  7. Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Journal of Psycho metrika, 16 (3), 97–334.
  8. Darling-Hammond, L. (2006). Constructing 21 st-century teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 57(3), 300-314.
  9. Disharoon, R. A. (2003). Action research toolkit arts education.
  10. Ferrance, E. (2000). Themes in education action research, (, Producer).
  11. Guide Library. (2019). SPSS tutorials: Independent samples t Test.
  12. Jorge, J. R. (2007). Teachers’ conceptions of teacher-research and self-perceptions as enquiring practitioners—A longitudinal case study. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23 (4), 402-417.
  13. Kaiser, H. F. (1974). An index of factor simplicity, Journal of Multivariate Behavioral Research, 39 (1), 31-36.
  14. Lankshear, C., & Michele, K. (2004). A handbook for teacher research: From design to implementation (illustrated, reprint 1 ed) Open University Press.
  15. Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests, Journal of Psycho metrika, 16(3), 97–334.
  16. Leech, N. L., Barrett, K. C., & Morgan, G. A. (2005). SPSS for intermediate statistics: Use and interpretation.
  17. Lydia, A. (2015). Action research for higher education practitioners: A practical guide.
  18. Maksimovic, J. (2010). Historical development of action research. Philosophy, Sociology, Psychology and History, 9 (1), 119 – 124.
  19. Mahmood, N., & Iqbal, Z. (2018). Challenges faced by prospective teachers during teaching. Journal of Bulletin of Education and Research, 40 (2), 113-136.
  20. Mills, G. E. (2007). Action research: A guide for the teacher (5th ed.). Pearson.
  21. National Education Policy. (2017). National Education Policy 2017-2025. Government of Pakistan Ministry of Federal Education and Professional Training Islamabad.
  22. Noddings, N. (2018). Philosophy of Education (4th Ed.). Routledge.
  23. Noffke, S. E. (1997). Professional, personal and political dimensions of action research. Journal of Review of research in Education, 22 (1), 305-343.
  24. NPST. (2009). National professional standards of teachers, policy and planning wing ministry of education government of Pakistan Islamabad.
  25. Osborne, W. J., & Ovrbay, A. (2004). The power of outliers (and why researchers should.
  26. Patrick, S., Boer, Christa, Lothar, S., & Schwarte. (2018). Correlation coefficients appropriate use and interpretation. International Anesthesia Research Society, 126 (6), 1763–1768.
  27. Saifulla, S., Sherzaman, A. A., Ali, S. S., Idrees, A., & Zaman, S. (2013). Effect of reformed teaching practicum on profession development of B.Ed (Hons) prospective teachers. Journal of Bulletin of Education and Research, 35(2), 125-138.
  28. Scheme of Studies. (2012). Scheme of studies associate degree in education in service.
  29. Steele, L. (2007). Accessible portfolios: Making it happen.
  30. Whitehead, J. (2002). Action research: Principles and practice, (2nd ed.). Routledge.
  31. Yıldız, M., Geçikli, M., & Yeşilyurt, S. (2016), Turkish prospective english teachers’ reflections on teaching practice. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 4 (4), 696-703.
  32. Zeichner, K. M. (2003). Teacher research as professional development for P–12 educators in the USA. Journal of Educational Action Research, 11(2), 301-326.