Gender and spatial inclusion techniques during classroom interaction and primary pupils’ achievement in literacy and numeracy


Olayinka Morenike Dagunduro
Sunday Oluwaseun Onakoya


Introduction: Teachers prepare the curriculum, prepare contents to be taught, teach the pupils with various teaching aids and methodology, assess the pupils, and sometimes make updates in tune with the current realities and the needs of the society. Classroom interaction is a practice that enhances the development of the two very important language skills which are speaking and listening among the learners

Purpose: This study examined the effect of the application of gender and spatial inclusion techniques during classroom interaction on primary pupils’ achievement.

Methodology: Quasi-experimental design using the pre and post-test experimental approach was adopted. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 100 teachers divided into two groups (experimental and control), 386 students. Three (3) instruments: an Observation Schedule and two Achievement Tests with high reliability values were used for the study. Data gathered were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Independent T-test.

Results: The result among others showed that there was significant difference in the classroom interaction pattern of teachers exposed to the treatment from teachers that were not exposed to the treatment in terms of gender inclusion, teaching aids, and teachers’ preparation. However, there was no significant difference in terms of spatial inclusion.

Conclusion and Recommendation: It is thus recommended that more efforts should be geared towards the improvement in the classroom interaction pattern of primary school teachers.


How to Cite
Dagunduro, O. M., & Onakoya, S. O. (2023). Gender and spatial inclusion techniques during classroom interaction and primary pupils’ achievement in literacy and numeracy. Journal of Educational Research in Developing Areas, 4(3), 231-241.


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