Analysis of child labour forms and relevant community characteristics in rural communities of south-west Nigeria


Fatai Ayoade Alaka
Abubakar Akinfolarin Mohammed
Serifat Olatundun Salami


Introduction: Child labour is a pervasive problem whose specific identification in context is difficult in Nigeria. It hinders the overall development of all the affected children in several forms.

Purpose: The study investigated the different ways in which the negative phenomenon of child labour manifest at different rural households in the south-west Nigeria.

Methodology: Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 210 household heads purposively and also 210 children, one each per household, were selected randomly. Reliability and validity tests were carried out for the measuring scale. The former was done applying split-half procedure with Cronbach alpha while the latter applied both face and content validities. Qualitative data, (Community characteristics applying Global positioning system to take coordinates of relevant features were employed), so also descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data.

Results: The findings showed that there were significant relationships between the forms of child labour, related activities and children’s involvement with respect to such activities. These may be due to long distance walking to accomplish those tasks and other inherent risks.

Conclusion: In conclusion, children’s involvement in different activities has been showed to be influenced mainly by the need to contribute to household income and poverty.

Recommendations: The study therefore, recommended economic and financial empowerment, as well as attitudinal change on the part of household heads.


How to Cite
Alaka, F. A., Mohammed, A. A., & Salami, S. O. . (2024). Analysis of child labour forms and relevant community characteristics in rural communities of south-west Nigeria. Journal of Educational Research in Developing Areas, 5(1), 88-98.


  1. Agbonlahor, M. U., Momoh, B., & Oke, J. T. (2007). Determinants of child farm labour in rural households of Ogun State, Nigeria. Asset Series, 2 (1), 97- 108.
  2. Badmus, M. A., & Akinyosoye, V. O. (2008). Child labour and schooling in rural areas of Nigeria. International Journal of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development, 1 (2), 48-55.
  3. Bonyan Organization (2024). What is Child labour?
  4. Corporate Finance Institute (2023). Household. https://corporatefinance
  5. Edet, G. E., & Etim, N. A. (2013). Child labour in agriculture among poor rural households: Some issues and facts. European Journal of Physical and Agricultural Sciences, 1(1), 44 – 52.
  6. Edupedia (2022). Community: Meaning and characteristics.
  7. Enebe, N. O., Enebe, J. T., Agunwa, C. C., Ossai, E. N., Ezeoke, U. E., Idoko, C. A., & Mbachu, C. O. (2021). Prevalence and predictors of child labour among junior secondary school students in Enugu, Nigeria: A cross sectional study. BMC Public health 21, 1339.
  8. Federal Government of Nigeria: Federal Ministry of Labour and Productivity. (2013). List of hazardous child labour in Nigeria.
  9. Gedefaw, A., & Seyfe, F. (2021). Individual household, and community level factors of child labor in rural Ethiopia. Cogent Social Sciences, 7(1), 94-100.
  10. ILO. (2019). Tackling child labour, 100 years action the ILO contribution 1919-2019.
  11. International Cocoa Initiative (ICI) (2021). Child labour in Cocoa. Anestimated 1.56 million children are in child labour in Cote d’Ivoire and Ghana.
  12. Jefferey, M. (2024). What makes a community? Characteristics and examples of community.
  13. Lee, B. R. (2021). Child labor: What are the health and social implications? Education, National School of Tropical Medicine.
  14. Open Education Sociology Dictionary (2013-2024).. Head of household
  15. Owusu, V., & Kwarteye, A. G. (2014). An empirical analysis on the determinants of child labor in cocoa production in Ghana.
  16. Radfar , A., Asgharzadeh, S. A. A., Quesada, F., & Filip, I. (2018). Challenges and perspectives of child labor. Industrial Psychiatry Journal, 27(1), 17-20.
  17. Rao, F. A. (2013). No child labour domestic work. Conference paper, Institute of public policy research and development. https|||publicatin|259974801.
  18. UNICEF (2023). Child labour.
  19. Webbink, E., Smits, J., & Jong, E. (2013). Household and context determinants of child labor in 221 districts of 18 developing countries. Social Indices Research, 110 (2), 819–836.
  20. Webbink, E., Smits, J., & De Jong, E. (2010). Hidden child labour; determinants of housework and family business work of children in 16 developing countries.
  21. Wikipedia (2024). Community.