Perception on child development among carers in pre-schools in Ibadan, Nigeria

##plugins.themes.academic_pro.article.main##

Tolani Victoria Olaoye
Celestina Adebimpe Ojo
Makanju Dehinde Awogbenja
Peace Osabo

Abstract

Introduction: Studies have shown that the early years of a child is an important period of development that will have a long-term impact on his/her psychological well-being. Key roles of carers is to provide a caring, safe, stimulating, inclusive environment for infants and toddlers.


Purpose: The study sought to examine the perception on child development among carers in pre-schools.


Methodology: A qualitative research design was adopted for the study. A total of 12 key informant’s pre-school teachers (Carers) were purposively selected from six schools. Two (2) instruments were used: the first instrument was titled; Socio-demographic Questionnaire: obtained information of research participants such as, gender, year of experience, relationship status; and the second one was titled: key Informants’ interview guide which consisted of a minimum of 12 items (open-ended questions) developed by the researcher to obtain information from the respondents. The interview guide was subjected to face validity.


Results: The interviewees were all female pre-school teachers/carer. This study revealed that majority of the carers perceived child development as a process that starts from conception to adolescence. Practices that were generally believed as a way to foster child development included, discipline, conducive learning environment, encouraging the child (both as parents and teachers), good nutrition.


Conclusion and recommendation: Carers play a prominent role in the development of a child; it calls for attention both at the societal and individual levels. It was recommended that quality investment should be done by allocating resources for training change agents be they parents, teachers or health workers among others

##plugins.themes.academic_pro.article.details##

How to Cite
Olaoye, T. V., Ojo, C. A., Awogbenja, M. D., & Osabo, P. (2024). Perception on child development among carers in pre-schools in Ibadan, Nigeria. Journal of Educational Research in Developing Areas, 5(1), 1-18. https://doi.org/10.47434/JEREDA.5.1.2024.1

References

  1. Bakibinga, H. F., & Vinje, M. M. (2014). The role of religion in the work lives and coping strategies of Ugandan nurses. Journal of Religion and Health, 53(5), 1342-1352.
  2. Health topics: Child health- World Health Organization (2016). https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&opi=89978449&url=https://www.who.int/health-topics/childhealth%23:~:text%3DIn%25202016%252C%2520at%2520least%2520250,many%2520as%25201%2520billion%2520children.&ved=2ahUKEwiNzZO86pODAxVrWEEAHRfiBsoQFnoECBEQBQ&usg=AOvVaw0w5aOQBsbwscT55nEu0EIP.
  3. Chung, E. O., Lia, C. H., & Webber, A. M. (2019). Caregiver perceptions of child development in rural Madagascar: A cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health 19(1256), 2-12.
  4. Clinton, J., Feller, A., & Williams, R. (2016). The importance of infant mental health. Paediatric Child Health 21, 239–241. https://doi.org/10.1093/pch/21.5.239.
  5. Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. 3rd edition.p.cm.
  6. De Onis, M., & Branca, F. (2016). Childhood stunting: A global perspective. Maternal Child Nutrition, 12, 12–26. https://doi.org/10.1111/mcn.12231.
  7. Fisher A., Boyle J. M., & Paton J. Y. (2011). Effects of a physical education intervention on cognitive function in young children: randomized controlled pilot study. BMC Pediatrics, 11(1), 97-105. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2431-1197.
  8. Fugard, A. J., & Potts, H. W. (2015). Supporting thinking on sample sizes for thematic. analyses: a quantitative tool. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 18(6), 669–684.
  9. Georgieff, M. K. (2007). Nutrition and the developing brain: nutrient priorities and measurement. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 85, 614S–620S.
  10. Gladstone, M., Phuka, J., Mirdamadi S, (2018). The care, stimulation and nutrition of children from 0-2 in Malawi-Perspectives from caregivers; "Who's holding the baby?. PLOS ONE, 13 (6), e0199757. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0199757.
  11. Harkness, S., Super, C. M., & Barry, O. (2009). Assessing the environment of children’s learning: The developmental niche in Africa. In E. L. Grigorenko (Ed.), Multicultural psycho-educational assessment. Pp. 133–155. Oxford University Press.
  12. Harkness, S., Super, C. M., & Mavridis, C. J. (2013). Culture and early childhood development. Implications for policy and programs. In Britto P.R, Engle P.L, & Supr C.M. (Eds.), Handbook of early childhood development research and its impact on global policy, (Pp.142–160).. Oxford University Press.
  13. Hernández-Martínez, C., Canals, S. J., & Fernández-Ballart, J. (2011). Parents' perceptions of their neonates and their relation to infant development. Child Care & Health Development, 37(4), 484–492.
  14. Hertzman, C. (2000). The case for an early childhood development strategy. ISUMA, 1. 11–18.
  15. Kid Sense Child Development Charts, What is Child Development? https://childdevelopment.com.au``/areas-of-concern/what-is-child-development/
  16. Koentjana, C. (2017). How are parents disciplining their preschool children? 3rd International Conference on Early Childhood Education (ICECE 2016). https://doi.org/10.2991/icece-16.2017.19.
  17. Marques, J., Dhiman, S., & King, R. (2009). The workplace and spirituality: New perspectives on research and practice. Skylight Paths Publishing.
  18. Ogunnaike, O. A., & Houser, R. F. Jr. (2002). Yoruba toddlers' engagement in errands and cognitive performance on the Yoruba mental subscale. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 26(2), 145–153.
  19. Olson, S. L., Bates, J. E., Sandy, J. M., & Lanthier, R. (2000). Early developmental precursors of externalizing behavior in middle childhood and adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28(2), 119–133.
  20. Omigbodun, O., Obimakinde, A. M., Adedokun, B., & Adejumo, O. (2019). Parenting styles and socio-demographic dynamics associated with mental health of in-school adolescents in Ibadan, south-west Nigeria. Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 31(2), 109-124. https://doi.org/10.2989/17280583.2019.1662426.
  21. Owens, R.E, (2012). School-age language development, adolescent and adult language. Pearson Allyn & Bacon.
  22. Parlakian, R., & Seibel, N. (2002). Building strong foundations: Practical guidance for promoting the social-emotional development of infants and toddlers. Zero To Three Press.
  23. Prado E. L., Abbeddou S., & Yakes, J. E., Some J.W., Dewey G.K., Brown K.H 2015). Lipid-based nutrient supplements plus malaria and diarrhea treatment increase infant development scores in a cluster-randomized trial in Burkina Faso Journal of Nutrition, 146, 814–822.
  24. Stefania, M., Lori, J. I., Arjumand, S., & Clyde, H. (2010). The social determinants of early child development: An overview. Journal of Pediatrics and Child Health Volume 46 (11), 627-635. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.14401754.2010.01817.x.
  25. Sustainable Development Goals (4) - Indicators and a monitoring framework. Launching a data revolution for the Sustainable Development Goals. https://indicators.report/targets/4-2/.
  26. Straus, M., & Fauchier, A. (2011). Dimensions of discipline by fathers and mothers as recalled by university students. University of New Hampshire. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228386836_Dimensions_of_discipline_by_fathers_and_mothers_as_recalled_by_university_students.
  27. Smith, J. A., & Rayment, J. J. (2007). The global SMP fitness framework: A guide for leaders exploring the relevance of spirituality in the workplace. Management Decision, 45(2), 17-234 https://doi.org/10.1108/02517407107327250.
  28. Smith, B. L. (2012). The case against spanking physical discipline is slowly declining as some studies reveal lasting harms for children. American Psychological Association
  29. Smith, W. B. (2011). Youth leaving foster care: A developmental, relationship-based approach to practice. Oxford University Press.
  30. Straus, M. A., & Fauchier, A. (2013). Manual for the dimensions of discipline inventory (DDI). Family Research Laboratory Supratik.
  31. Topping, K., Dekhinet, R., & Zeedyk, S. (2013). Parent-infant interaction and children’s language development. Educational Psychology, 33(4), 391–426. https://doi.org/10.1080/01443410.2012744159.
  32. UNICEF (2009). Multiple indicator cluster surveys. https://www.mics.unicef.org/surveys.
  33. UNICEF (2017). Development of the early childhood development index in MICS surveys. https://www.unicef.org/dprk/ecd.pdf.
  34. Walker, S. P., Fernald, L. C., & Black, M. M., (2017). Early childhood development coming of age: science through the life course. Lancet, 389, 77–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/S01406736(16)31389-7.
  35. Wallander, J. L., Biasini, F. .J., & Waldemar, A. C. (2014). Dose of early intervention treatment during children first 36 months of life is associated with developmental outcomes: An observational cohort study in three low/low-middle income countries. BMC Pediatrics, 14(1), 281-290.