Stress and frustration tolerance on officiating performance among elite football referees in Nigeria


Joseph Odey Ogabor
Agnes James Ekpo
Martina Ayibeya Apie
Sanusi Mohammed
Peter Owogoga Aduma
Aminu Shantali Shuaibu


Introduction: Football referees play an essential yet demanding role in officiating and enforcing the laws of the game (soccer). Despite this role, referees are often faced with challenging situations that tend to interfere with their officiating performance.

Purpose: The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of stress and frustration tolerance on the performance of elite football referees in Nigeria.

Methodology: Three null hypotheses guided the study. A survey research design was adopted for the study. A total of 123 elite football referees participated in the study. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Frustration Discomfort Scale (FDS) and Referee Performance Questionnaire (RPQ) served as the data collection tools. The first two instruments were adopted, and their validity and reliability have since been established. The RPQ was validated using experts’ opinions and subjected to a reliability test of internal consistency. The coefficient obtained was 0.711, which showed high reliability of the research instrument.  Data were collected by physically administering copies of the instruments to the elite football referees. Simple and multiple regression analysis was applied to quantify the predictive relationships between perceived stress and frustration tolerance with self-perceived performance.

Results: Findings revealed a negative relationship between perceived stress and referee performance. However, a significant positive relationship was found between frustration tolerance and referee performance.

Recommendation: Based on the results, it was recommended among others that, football organizations should integrate stress management training into referee development programmes.


How to Cite
Ogabor, J. O., Ekpo, A. J., Apie, M. A., Mohammed, S., Aduma, P. O., & Shuaibu, A. S. (2023). Stress and frustration tolerance on officiating performance among elite football referees in Nigeria. Journal of Educational Research in Developing Areas, 4(3), 270-284.


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