Application of Marxist analysis: Basis for accounting for ethno-regional inequalities in education and consequent opportunities in Kenya

##plugins.themes.academic_pro.article.main##

Charles Lewa Chai
Sammy Kipkemboi Rutto
Francis Gikonyo Wokabi
Caroline Buya

Abstract

Introduction: Addressing inequalities in education has been a necessary condition for equal opportunities to be achieved. Accordingly, providing equal opportunities in education has also been a step toward maintaining social equality. An inhibited educational opportunity within some ethno-regions and social groups is the main source of this occurrence.


Purpose: To investigate persistent ethno-regional inequalities in education in Kenya using Marxist ideology.


Methodology: This philosophical study has employed ideas or viewpoints from the philosophy of Karl Marx and related ideology to probe the persistence of inequality in education. Marxist analysis has involved studying, and evaluating educational reports with a view to find out if equality in education in Kenya is a reality or an ideology (illusion).


Results: The Kenyan education system has inbuilt inequalities within it. These have included: stratification in form of classification of schools as public or private, national, extra-county, county and sub-county. The hierarchical organization of schools has always contributed to the hierarchical aspect of Kenyan society. The majority of rich families enroll their children in private schools, giving them access to a system that is selective in terms of work and household income. Therefore, education in Kenya has not improved equality as intended. In reality, it has been imitating the current societal structure. The illusion of scholastic achievement has been upheld by the affluent, who have used it to justify their position while blaming the inferior status of the poor to their own failure. They have defended the presence of those with various statuses through philosophy.


Recommendations: The study recommended that Kenya should adopt instreamed comprehensive schooling instead of different types of schools, and that no privatization or private control of educational institutions.

##plugins.themes.academic_pro.article.details##

How to Cite
Chai, C. L., Rutto, S. K., Wokabi, F. G., & Buya, C. (2023). Application of Marxist analysis: Basis for accounting for ethno-regional inequalities in education and consequent opportunities in Kenya. Journal of Educational Research in Developing Areas, 4(2), 148-157. https://doi.org/10.47434/JEREDA.4.2.2023.148

References

  1. Anyon, J. (2011). Marx and education. https://www.routledge.com/Marx-andEducation/Anyon/p/book/9780415803304.
  2. Bogonko, S.N. (992). A history of modern education in Kenya. Evans Brother Limited.
  3. Clercq, F. D. (2020). The persistence of South African educational inequalities: The need for understanding and relying on analytical framework. https://doi.org/10.25159/1947/7234https://upjournals.co.29/index.php/EAC.
  4. Dunn, R. (2021). Dominant and minority groups. Retrieved November 15, 2022 from
  5. Güçlü, I. (2014). Karl Marx and Ralf Dahrendorf; A Comparative Perspective on class formation and conflict. Eskisehir osmangezi Universities, 9(2), 151-167. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/65349.
  6. Gündoǧan, E. (2023). The sphere of political economy and the ruling class. https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.13169/worlrevipoliecon.4.2.0158.
  7. Hammond, L.D. (2002). Inequality in teaching and schooling: how opportunity is rational to students of colour in America in the right thing to do, the smart thing to do. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK223640/.
  8. Hayes, A. (2022). Conflict theory definition, founder, and examples. https://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/conflict-theory.asp.
  9. Hill, D. (2021). Neo-fascism, capitalism and Marxist educators. Edu cacao & Realidade, Porto Alegre 46(3), e117660.
  10. Krantz, S. (2016). A Marxist analysis of the value based education portrayed in the Swedish curriculum for upper secondary school. https://lup.lub.lu.se/student- papers/search/publication/8904252.
  11. Lahtinen, H., Sirnio.O., & Martikainen, P. (2018). Social class and the risk of unemployment: Trends, gender differences and the contribution of education. https://osf.io/preprints/socarxiv/9c2jp/download.
  12. Marlott, C.S., & Ford, D.R. (2015). Marx, capital, and education: Toward a critical pedagogy of becoming [Full Text archive Version].
  13. Mulongo, G. (2013). Inequality in accessing higher education in Kenya: Implication for education and well-being. International
  14. Journal of Humanities and social Science, 3(16), 57 – 67. http://www.ijhssnet.com/journals/Vol_3_No_16_Special_Issue_August_2013/6.pdf
  15. Munene, L. L. (2002). University academics: Demographic role structure characteristics and attitudes towards merit and equity. A Kenyan
  16. case study. Research in Post-compulsory education, 7 (3), 247-
  17. https://doi.org/10.1080/13596740200200130.
  18. Nickerson, C. (2022). The Marxist perspective on education. Simply sociology https://simplysociology.com/marxist-perspectiveeducation.html.
  19. Ochola, A.O. (2007). Leadership and economic crisis in Africa. KLB.
  20. OECD (2012). Equity and quality in education: supporting disadvantaged students and schools. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development, 3(5), 2222-2855 https://www.oecd.org/education/school/50293148.pdf.
  21. Ominde commission, (1964). Reforming education and training? Lessons from development of vocational education and training in Kenya. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ797650.pdf
  22. Paediatr Child Health, (2007). The impact of poverty on educational outcomes for children. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2528798/
  23. Small, R. (2014). Karl Marx: The revolutionary as educator. https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-94-007-7657-9
  24. Stifling, F. E. (2012). Regional disparities and marginalization in Kenya. https://library.fes.de/pdffiles/bueros/kenia/09859.pdf
  25. Thompson, K. (2015). Marx: Key ideas for As Sociology. https://revisesociology.com/2015/11/22/marx-key-ideas-summary/
  26. Wolf and Leopold (2021). Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-environmental/.

Most read articles by the same author(s)